This map was drawn during the American Civil War. It was made by the United States Coast Surveyors, by order of congress, for the use of our Merchantmen and Navy.
Discriptions of United States southeastern navigable waterways at the bottom of the map include:
Toms River Bay, is a small harbor of minor importance, situated on the coast of Ocean County, New Jersey. It is navigable for small vessels. The town of Toms River is situated at the head of this bay, and is the county seat of Ocean County. Location, 35 miles southeast by east of Trenton.
Delaware Bay, at the mouth of the Delaware River, is an arm of the sea 75 miles long, and from 20 to 30 miles wide. Navigation is accompanied with much danger, as many shoals exist. Below Port Penn, about 70 miles from the ocean, there exists no natural barrier, which is the case for many miles from New York. To remedy this in measure, the government have erected an immense breakwater, just inside of Cape Henlopen. in which vessels can make an anchorage and be secure in all weather.
Chesapeake Bay, in the states of Maryland and Virginia. Its entrance is between Cape Charles on the north and Cape Henry on the south, a distance of 12 miles. It is the largest arm of the sea in the United States, and extends inland 270 miles. It makes an unequal division of Maryland, leaving the lower part of the peninsula separated from the main portion of Virginia. Its width varies from 7 to 20 miles, and is usually of a depth of from 7 to 9 fathoms deep. Navigation is quite easy. It affords a harbor commodious enough to ride the navies of the world and leave room enough for commercial intercourse. It receives the rivers Susquehanna at its northern termination, and the Potomac and James on the west side; also the rivers Rappahonnock, the Patuxent, Patapsco, the Chester, Elk, Choptank, and Nanticoke, besides numerous smaller streams. The city of Baltimore is the principal commercial city situated upon the banks, although many smaller ones make an extensive total when consolidated. The numerous fisheries are of great importance to the inhabitants living upon its shore. It is of more then usual importance at this time, in consequence of its being the scene of numerous engagements between the United States fleet and Confederate batteries. The line of division between the Confederate States and those of the North fall in its waters. Fortress Monroe, considered the key to this bay and the state of Virginia, is also situated upon its banks. Fort McHenry also occupies a position of importance, being in possession of the Federals at Baltimore, and situated on the Patapsco River, a minor arm of the Chesapeake.
Georgetown Entrance and Winyaw Bay, are situated in Georgetown County, South Carolina. The bay is 14 miles long and 2 miles wide, navigable for large vessels. The Black, Great Pedee, and Wacamon Rivers find an outlet through this bay to the sea. Batteries command the entrance to the harbor.
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, a large estuary with a width of nearly 2 miles and extending southeast from Charleston 7 miles to the ocean, in entering which passes between Sullivan's and Morrison's Islands. Cooper and Ashley Rivers empty into the bay on either side of a tongue of land, on which the city of Charleston is built. The depth of these rivers is from 30 to 40 feet, very wide and commodious, and capable of accommodating the largest ships. Vessels drawing 16 feet can enter Charleston Harbor at high tide. The city of Charleston, with its beautiful villas and fragrant gardens, teeming with sweetness on every side, its orange trees, magnolias and Palmettos, assure the stranger that elegance, wealth, and luxury are the products of thrift and enterprise. The city was the scene of the first conflict between the Federal Government and Confederates; but its history is so well known, that it needs no further comment. The fortifications for the defence of Charleston are, Fort Sumpter, Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island, Castle Pinckney, 2 miles below the city, and Fort Johnson, 4 miles below, also batteries all along the shore.
Cape Canaveral, is in the lower end of Volusia County, Florida, on the Atlantic Coast. It is separated from the mainland by Indian River, which is separated from the ocean by an extremely narrow strip of land, extending for nearly 80 miles, close to the sea shore. Indian River has an outlet at Indian River Inlet, near Fort Capron, nearly in the centre of the eastern boundary of Brevard County.
Bayport, Florida, the county seat of Hernando County is situated nearly on the seashore, and is of secondary importance. They also form the gulf terminus of the Fernandina & Gulf Railroad.
Cedar Keys, Florida, are composed of several small islands on the western side of the peninsula. Cedar Key Bay has its uppermost extremity to the northward of these Keys. They are principally the residence of fishermen. The mouth of the Suwannee River empties into the gulf at a distance of 12 miles to the northwest of Cedar Keys.
Rio Grande River, is the southwestern boundary of the United States, it extends to the Rocky Mountains, it empties into the Gulf of Mexico, 7 miles below Brazos Santiago, the last American town on the Gulf Coast. The Rio Grande is navigable for steamboats to Loredo and Fort McIntosh, 700 miles. Its banks are composed of rich agricultural soil, capable of producing almost incalcuable products.
This map of the southeastern United States was published in 1862 by James T. Lloyd. It shows cities, towns, villages, forts, counties, harbors, and rivers. The map was signed by Millard Fillmore.