Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Lower Canada, 1860.
In 1860 New England was emerging as a major manufacturing region. Railroads were gaining much attention, as farmers and manufacturers of the region were realizing new possibilities.
Before the railroads, farmers of New England were largely producing crops for local use and not marketing to the larger centers at Boston or New York much at all. Manufactured goods, such as furniture, tools, textiles and soaps, were mainly sold or exchanged at local markets.
With the added New England railroads of the mid-1800's, manufacturers and farmers were able to easily ship goods to most other parts of the country and Canada.
With new farming areas in the western states now competing with New England farmers for production of staples, New England farmers began concentrating on cultivating products used in the making of local manufactures including potash, charcoal, and pearlash.
Tobacco began to be grown vigorously in New England during this time.
Boston was one of America’s largest trading and industrial centers by the late 1850's. Many immigrants from Europe and elsewhere relocated to Boston to work in its numerous factories during this era.
Portland was the site of one of the northernmost battles of the Civil War, when in 1863, a confederate raiding party entered the harbor, resulting in the "Battle of Portland Harbor".
This map published in 1860 by G.W. Colton displays state, county, and township borders. Railroads are clearly labeled with mileage between stations indicated. From G. Woolworth Colton's Series of Railroad Maps, No. 2.